ISLAM & SCIENCE

Islam & Science


Muslims Contribution To Science

What Shape is the Earth ?

Quran & The sensory characteristic of the skin

Quran & The Clouds

Islamic method of Slaughtering animals is better

Ibn Sina the Psychologist

Cosmological references in the Noble Qur'ân

The Mathematical Sciences And Physics

Geology & The Origin of the Earth

Scientific Accuracy of Qur'an Amazes U of T Professor

The Relationship between Quran & Science. Is the earth flat?

Quran on Human Embryonic Develpment

Muslims Contribution To Science





Lost of Christians left christianity & the reason was clearly : It contradicts science ! What about Muslims ? Here you can read a breif information about Muslims & Science in the past ..

Astronomy :

Muslims have always had a special interest in astronomy. The moon and the sun are of vital importance in the daily life of every Muslim. By the moon, Muslims determine the beginning and the end of the months in their lunar calendar. By the sun the Muslims calculate the times for prayer and fasting. It is also by means of astronomy that Muslims can determine the precise direction of the Qiblah, to face the Ka'bah in Makkah, during prayer. The most precise solar calendar, superior to the Julian, is the Jilali, devised under the supervision of Umar Khayyam. The Qur'an contains many references to astronomy. 

"The heavens and the earth were ordered rightly, and were made subservient to man, including the sun, the moon, the stars, and day and night. Every heavenly body moves in an orbit assigned to it by God and never digresses, making the universe an orderly cosmos whose life and existence, diminution and expansion, are totally determined by the Creator." [Qur'an 30:22] 

These references, and the injunctions to learn, inspired the early Muslim scholars to study the heavens. They integrated the earlier works of the Indians, Persians and Greeks into a new synthesis. Ptolemy's Almagest (the title as we know it is Arabic) was translated, studied and criticized. Many new stars were discovered, as we see in their Arabic names - Algol, Deneb, Betelgeuse, Rigel, Aldebaran. Astronomical tables were compiled, among them the Toledan tables, which were used by Copernicus, Tycho Brahe and Kepler. Also compiled were almanacs - another Arabic term. Other terms from Arabic are zenith, nadir, albedo, azimuth. 

Muslim astronomers were the first to establish observatories, like the one built at Mugharah by Hulagu, the son of Genghis Khan, in Persia, and they invented instruments such as the quadrant and astrolabe, which led to advances not only in astronomy but in oceanic navigation, contributing to the European age of exploration. 
Geography: 

Muslim scholars paid great attention to geography. In fact, the Muslims' great concern for geography originated with their religion. The Qur'an encourages people to travel throughout the earth to see God's signs and patterns everywhere. Islam also requires each Muslim to have at least enough knowledge of geography to know the direction of the Qiblah (the position of the Ka'bah in Makkah) in order to pray five times a day. Muslims were also used to taking long journeys to conduct trade as well as to make the Hajj and spread their religion. The far-flung Islamic empire enabled scholar-explorers to compile large amounts of geographical and climatic information from the Atlantic to the Pacific. 

Among the most famous names in the field of geography, even in the West, are Ibn Khaldun and Ibn Batuta, renowned for their written accounts of their extensive explorations. In 1166, Al-Idrisi, the well-known Muslim scholar who served the Sicilian court, produced very accurate maps, including a world map with all the continents and their mountains, rivers and famous cities. Al-Muqdishi was the first geographer to produce accurate maps in color. It was, moreover, with the help of Muslim navigators and their inventions that Magellan was able to traverse the Cape of Good Hope, and Da Gama and Columbus had Muslim navigators on board their ships. 
Humanity: 

Seeking knowledge is obligatory in Islam for every Muslim, man and woman. The main sources of Islam, the Qur'an and the Sunnah (Prophet Muhammad's traditions), encourage Muslims to seek knowledge and be scholars, since this is the best way for people to know Allah (God), to appreciate His wondrous creations and be thankful for them. Muslims were therefore eager to seek knowledge, both religious and secular, and within a few years of Muhammad's mission, a great civilization sprang up and flourished. The outcome is shown in the spread of Islamic universities; Al-Zaytunah in Tunis, and Al-Azhar in Cairo go back more than 1,000 years and are the oldest existing universities in the world. Indeed, they were the models for the first European universities, such as Bologna, Heidelberg, and the Sorbonne. Even the familiar academic cap and gown originated at Al-Azhar University. 

Muslims made great advances in many different fields, such as geography, physics, chemistry, mathematics, medicine, pharmacology, architecture, linguistics and astronomy. Algebra and the Arabic numerals were introduced to the world by Muslim scholars. The astrolabe, the quadrant, and other navigational devices and maps were developed by Muslim scholars and played an important role in world progress, most notably in Europe's age of exploration. 

Muslim scholars studied the ancient civilations from Greece and Rome to China and India. The works of Aristotle, Ptolemy, Euclid and others were translated into Arabic. Muslim scholars and scientists then added their own creative ideas, discoveries and inventions, and finally transmitted this new knowledge to Europe, leading directly to the Renaissance. Many scientific and medical treatises, having been translated into Latin, were standard text and reference books as late as the 17th and 18th centuries. 
Mathematics: 

It is interesting to note that Islam so strongly urges mankind to study and explore the universe. For example, the Holy Qur'an states: 

"We (Allah) will show you (mankind) Our signs/patterns in the horizons/universe and in yourselves until you are convinced that the revelation is the truth." [Qur'an, 14:53] 

This invitation to explore and search made Muslims interested in astronomy, mathematics, chemistry, and the other sciences, and they had a very clear and firm understanding of the correspondences among geometry, mathematics, and astronomy. 

The Muslims invented the symbol for zero (The word "cipher" comes from Arabic sifr), and they organized the numbers into the decimal system - base 10. Additionally, they invented the symbol to express an unknown quantity, i.e. variables like x. 

The first great Muslim mathematician, Al-Khawarizmi, invented the subject of algebra (al-Jabr), which was further developed by others, most notably Umar Khayyam. Al-Khawarizmi's work, in Latin translation, brought the Arabic numerals along with the mathematics to Europe, through Spain. The word "algorithm" is derived from his name. 

Muslim mathematicians excelled also in geometry, as can be seen in their graphic arts, and it was the great Al-Biruni (who excelled also in the fields of natural history, even geology and mineralogy) who established trigonometry as a distinct branch of mathematics. Other Muslim mathematicians made significant progress in number theory. 

Medicine:

In Islam, the human body is a source of appreciation, as it is created by Almighty Allah (God). How it functions, how to keep it clean and safe, how to prevent diseases from attacking it or cure those diseases, have been important issues for Muslims. 

Prophet Muhammad himself urged people to "take medicines for your diseases", as people at that time were reluctant to do so. He also said: "God created no illness, but established for it a cure, except for old age. When the antidote is applied, the patient will recover with the permission of God." 

This was strong motivation to encourage Muslim scientists to explore, develop, and apply empirical laws. Much attention was given to medicine and public health care. The first hospital was built in Baghdad in 706 AC. The Muslims also used camel caravans as mobile hospitals, which moved from place to place. 

Since the religion did not forbid it, Muslim scholars used human cadavers to study anatomy and physiology and to help their students understand how the body functions. This empirical study enabled surgery to develop very quickly. 

Al-Razi, known in the West as Rhazes, the famous physician and scientist, (d. 932) was one of the greatest physicians in the world in the Middle Ages. He stressed empirical observation and clinical medicine and was unrivaled as a diagnostician. He also wrote a treatise on hygiene in hospitals. Khalaf Abul-Qasim Al-Zahrawi was a very famous surgeon in the eleventh century, known in Europe for his work, Concessio (Kitab al-Tasrif). 

Ibn Sina (d. 1037), better known to the West as Avicenna, was perhaps the greatest physician until the modern era. His famous book, Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb, remained a standard textbook even in Europe, for over 700 years. Ibn Sina's work is still studied and built upon in the East. 

Other significant contributions were made in pharmacology, such as Ibn Sina's Kitab al-Shifa' (Book of Healing), and in public health. Every major city in the Islamic world had a number of excellent hospitals, some of them teaching hospitals, and many of them were specialized for particular diseases, including mental and emotional. The Ottomans were particularly noted for their building of hospitals and for the high level of hygiene practiced in them. 
Definition: 

The word ISLAM has a two-fold meaning: peace, and submission to God. This submission requires a fully conscious and willing effort to submit to the one Almighty God. One must consciously and conscientiously give oneself to the service of Allah. This means to act on what Allah enjoins all of us to do (in the Qur'an) and what His beloved Prophet, Muhammad (pbuh) encouraged us to do in his Sunnah (his lifestyle and sayings personifying the Qur'an). 

Once we humble ourselves, rid ourselves of our egoism and submit totally to Allah, and to Him exclusively, in faith and in action, we will surely feel peace in our hearts. Establishing peace in our hearts will bring about peace in our external conduct as well. 

Islam is careful to remind us that it not a religion to be paid mere lip service; rather it is an all-encompassing way of life that must be practiced continuously for it to be Islam. The Muslim must practice the five pillars of the religion: the declaration of faith in the oneness of Allah and the prophet hood of Muhammad (pbuh), prayer, fasting the month of Ramadan, alms-tax, and the pilgrimage to Makkah; and believe in the six articles of faith: belief in God, the Holy Books, the prophets, the angels, the Day of Judgment and God's decree, whether for good or ill. 

There are other injunctions and commandments which concern virtually all facets of one's personal, family and civic life. These include such matters as diet, clothing, personal hygiene, interpersonal relations, business ethics, responsibilities towards parents, spouse and children, marriage, divorce and inheritance, civil and criminal law, fighting in defense of Islam, relations with non-Muslims, and so much more.

What Shape is the Earth ?





Today we can look at a globe and know that the earth is somewhat like a ball, a sphere. The Qur'an makes certain statements that led Muslim scientists to understand long before their European counterparts that the earth is spherical. 

When Europe was in the dark ages thinking that the earth was flat, Muslim students were using globes for studying the earth in Islamic universities. 

Since it was not the purpose of the Qur'an to teach science, the Qur'an did not need to state explicitly that the earth is spherical in shape (or more precisely, a geoid). But some of what the Qur'an says stimulates you to think of the world as a globe. Take, for example, the following verse: "Have you not seen how God merges the night into the day and merges the day into the night?" (Quran 31:29).

Another verse tells us that God coils the day and night around: "He coils the night upon the day and He coils the day upon the night" (Quran 39:5). 

The word 'coils' in the verse above is a translation of the Arabic verb kawwara which is used in describing the action of coiling a turban around the head. To understand this statement fully, readers of the Qur'an had to think of the earth as a sphere. 

To fully appreciate the above two statements in the Qur'an, try this experiment at home: You need a flashlight and a globe. Take these items into a dark room. Using the flashlight to simulate the light of the sun, shine the light upon the globe. Notice that only one half of the globe is lighted up. The other half is in darkness. Half the world is having day, the other half is having night. Now, recall that the earth is continuously rotating on its axis and will go around completely in twenty four hours. Slowly turn the globe around to simulate this rotation. Notice that as the globe turns, the day is going around the globe to light up the other half of the world. The night is also going around the globe to give rest to the other half of the world.

The day and night are perpetually coiling around the earth with some degree of interpenetration. This is exactly how it appears to astronauts during their space flights. 
Dr. Bucaille makes the following remark: "This process of perpetual coiling, including the interpenetration of one sector by another, is expressed in the Qur'an just as if the concept of the earth's roundness had already been conceived at the time—which was obviously not the case." (The Bible, the Qur'an and Science, p. 165). 

How do we explain the presence of this knowledge in the Qur'an? This obviously did not reflect the level of learning of the time, but was helpful in stimulating Muslim scientists to conceive of the earth in its real shape.

This is no less than a reminder to (all) the worlds. And you shall certainly know the truth of it (all) after a while.(38:87-88).

Quran & The sensory characteristic of the skin





Dr. Tagata Tagasone: Laa Ilaaha Illallah Muhammad Rasool Allah !



This man is uttering the Islamic creed (Shahaadah) and declaring that he is becoming a Muslim. This occurred during the Eighth Saudi Medical Conference which was convened in Riyadh. He is Professor Tagata Tagasone, formerly Head of the Department of Anatomy and Embryology at the University of Shiang Mai in Thailand. He is now the Dean of the College of the Medicine at the University. 



We presented to Professor Tagasone some Qur’aanic verses and Prophetic Ahadeeth which deal with his specialization in the field of anatomy. He commented that they also had in their Buddhist books very accurate descriptions of embryonic developmental stages. We told him that we were very anxious and interested to see those descriptions and learn about these books. A year later, Professor Tcame to King Abdul Aziz University as an outside examiner. We reminded him of the statement he made one year before, but he apologized and said that he in fact had made that statement without ascertaining the matter. However, when he checked the Buddhist books he found that they contained nothing of relevance to the subject.


Upon this we presented to him a lecture written by Professor Keith Moore about the compatibility of modern embryology with what is contained in the Qur’aan and the Sunnah and we asked Professor Tagasone if he knew of Professor Keith Moore. He replied that he knew him of course, adding that Professor Moore was one of the Most world-renowned scientists in that field. 

When Professor Tagasone studied this article he also was greatly astonished. We asked him several questions in his field of specialization. One of the questions pertained to modern discoveries in dermatology about the sensory characteristics of the skin.
Dr. Tagasone responded: Yes if the burn is deep. 

It was stated to Dr. Tagasone: You will be interested to know that in this book, the Holy book the Qur’aan, there was a reference 1400 years ago which refers to the moment of punishment of the unbelievers by the fire of Hell and it states that when their skin is destroyed, Allah makes another skin for them so that they perceive the punishment by a fire, indicating knowledge about the nerve endings in the skin, and the verse is: 

Those who reject our signs. We shall soon cast into the fire; as often as their skins are roasted through. We shall change them for fresh skins, that they may taste the chastisement: for Allah is Exalted in Power, Wise [ Qur’aan 4:56]

So do you agree that this is a reference to the importance of the nerve endings in the skin in sensation, 1400 years ago?

Dr. Tagasone responded: Yes I agree. This knowledge about sensation had been known long before. Because it says that if somebody does something wrong, then he will be punished by burning his skin and then Allah puts a new skin in him, cover him, to make him know that the test is painful again. That means they knew many years ago that the receptor of pain sensation must be on the skin, so they put a new skin on.

The skin is the center of sensitivity to burns. Thus, if the skin is completely burnt by fire, it looses its sensitivity. It is for this reason that Allah will punish the unbelievers on the Day of Judgement by returning to them their skins time after time, as He, the Exalted and Glorified, said in the Qur’aan:Those who reject our signs. We shall soon cast into the fire; as often as their skins are roasted through. We shall change them for fresh skins, that they may taste the chastisement: for Allah is Exalted in Power, Wise (Qur’aan 4:56).

We asked him the following question: ‘Is it possible that these verses came to the Prophet Muhammad, (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), from a human source?’ 

Professor Tagasone conceded that they could have never come from any human source. But he still asked about the source of that knowledge and from where could Muhammad have possibly received it? 

We said, ‘From Allah, the Most Glorified and Most Exalted.’ Then he asked: ‘But who is Allah?’ We replied: He is the Creator of all that is in existence.’ If you find wisdom then it is because it comes only from the one Who is Most Wise. If you find knowledge in the making of this universe, it is because the universe is the creation of the One Who has all the knowledge. If you find perfection in the composition of these creations, then it is proof to you that it is the creation of the One Who Knows Best. And if you find mercy, then this bears witness to the fact that it is the creation of the One Who is Most Merciful. In the same way, if you perceive creation as belonging to one unified order and tied together firmly, then this is proof that it is the creation of the Only Creator, May He be Glorified and Exalted. 

This is no less than a reminder to (all) the worlds. And you shall certainly know the truth of it (all) after a while.(38:87-88).

Quran & The Clouds





Scientists have studied cloud types and have realized that rain clouds are formed and shaped according to definite systems and certain steps connected with certain types of wind and clouds.

One kind of rain cloud is the cumulonimbus cloud (pictured above) associated with thunderstorms. Meteorologists have studied how cumulonimbus clouds are formed and how they produce rain, hail, and lightning. 

They have found that cumulonimbus cloud go through the following steps to produce rain: 

1- The clouds are pushed by the wind: Cumulonimbus clouds begin to form when wind pushes some small pieces of clouds (cumulus) clouds to an area where these clouds converge. 

2- Joining: Then the small clouds join together forming a larger cloud.

3- Stacking: When the small clouds join together, updrafts within the larger cloud increase. The updrafts near the center of the cloud are stronger than those near the edges. These updrafts cause the cloud body to grow vertically, so the cloud is stacked up. This vertical growth causes the cloud body to stretch into cooler regions of the atmosphere where drops of water and hail formulate and begin to grow larger and larger. When these drops of water and hail become too heavy for the updrafts to support them, they begin to fall from the cloud as rain, hail, etc. 

Allah said in the Qur'aan: (Notice the great detail) Have you not seen how Allah makes the clouds move gently, then joins them together, then makes them into a stack, and then you see the rain come out of it...? [Qur'aan 24:43] 

Meteorologists have only recently come to know these details of cloud formation, structure, and function by using advanced equipment like planes, satellites, computers, balloons, and other equipment to study winds and its direction, to measure humidity and its variations, and to determine the levels and variations of atmospheric pressure. 

The preceding verse, after mentioning clouds and rain, speaks about hail and lightning: 

And He sends down hail from mountains (clouds) in the sky, and He strikes with it whomever He wills, and turns it from whoever He wills. The vivid flash of its lightning nearly blind s the sight. [Qur'aan 24:43]

Meteorologists have found that these cumulonimbus clouds, that shower hail, reach a height of 25,000 to 30,000 feet (4.7 to 5.7 miles), like mountains, as the Qur'aan said, And He sends down hail from mountains (clouds) in the sky... 

This verse may raise a question. Why does the verse say ...its lightning in reference to the hail? Does this mean that hail is the major factor in producing lightning? Let us see what the book entitled Meteorology Today, says on this. It says that clouds become electrified as hail falls through a region in the could of supercooled droplets and ice crystals. As liquid droplets collide with hail, they freeze on contact and release latent heat. This keeps the surface of the hail warmer than that of the surrounding ice crystals. When the hail comes in contact with and ice crystal, and important phenomenon occurs. Electrons flow from the colder oblect toward the warmer object. Hence, the hail become negatively charged, The same effect occurs when super cooled droplets come in contact with a piece of hail and tiny splinters of positively charged ice break off. These lighter, positively charged particles are then carried to the upper part of the could by updrafts. The hail, left with a negative charge, fall toward the bottom of the cloud, thus the lower part of the cloud becomes negatively charged. These negative charges are then discharged to the ground as lightning. We conclude from this that hail is the major factor in producing lightning. 

This information on lightning was discovered recently. Until 1600 A.D., Aristotle's ideas on meteorology were dominant. or example, he said that the atmosphere contains two kinds of exhalation, moist and dry. He also said that thunder is the sound of the collision of the dry exhalation with the neighboring clouds, and lightning is the inflaming and burning of the dry exhalation with a thin and faint fire. These are some of the ideas on meteorology that were dominant at the time of the Qur'aan's revelation, fourteen centuries ago.

Islamic method of Slaughtering animals is better





Al Shaddad Bin Aous has quoted this tradition of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H.) "God calls for mercy in everything, so be merciful when you kill and when you slaughter, sharpen your blade to relieve its pain".

Many allegations have been made that Islamic slaughter is not humane to animals. However, Professor Schultz and his colleague Dr. Hazim of the Hanover University, Germany, proved through an experiment, using an electroencephalograph (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) that *Islamic slaughter is THE humane method of slaughter* and captive bolt stunning, practiced by the Western method, causes severe pain to the animal. 

The results surprised many. 

Experimental Details: 

1. Several electrodes were surgically implanted at various points of the skull of all animals, touching the surface of thebrain. 

2. The animals were allowed to recover for several weeks. 

3. Some animals were slaughtered by making a swift, deep incision with a sharp knife on the neck cutting the jugular veins and carotid Arteries of both sides; as also the trachea and esophagusHalal Method. 

4. Some animals were stunned using a captive bolt pistol humane slaughter by the western method. 

5. During the experiment, EEG and ECG were recorded on all animals to record the condition of the brain and heart during the course of slaughter and stunning. 

Results and Discussion: 

I - Halal Method 

1. The first three seconds from the time of Islamic slaughter as recorded on the EEG did not show any change from the graph before slaughter, thus indicating that the animal did not feel any pain during or immediately after the incision. 

2. For the following 3 seconds, the EEG recorded a condition of deep sleep - unconsciousness. This is due to a large quantity of blood gushing out from the body. 

3. After the above mentioned 6 seconds, the EEG recorded zero level, showing no feeling of pain at all. 

4. As the brain message (EEG) dropped to zero level, the heart was still pounding and the body convulsing vigorously (a reflex action of the spinal cord) driving maximum blood from the body: resulting in hygienic meat for the consumer. 

II - Western method by C.B.P. Stunning 

1. The animals were apparently unconscious soon after stunning. 

2. EEG showed severe pain immediately after stunning. 

3. The hearts of the animal stunned by C.B.P. stopped beating earlier as compared to those of the animals slaughtered according to the Halal method resulting in the retention of more blood inthe meat. This in turn is unhygienic for the consumer.

Islamic method of Slaughtering animals is better





Al Shaddad Bin Aous has quoted this tradition of the Holy Prophet (P.B.U.H.) "God calls for mercy in everything, so be merciful when you kill and when you slaughter, sharpen your blade to relieve its pain".

Many allegations have been made that Islamic slaughter is not humane to animals. However, Professor Schultz and his colleague Dr. Hazim of the Hanover University, Germany, proved through an experiment, using an electroencephalograph (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) that *Islamic slaughter is THE humane method of slaughter* and captive bolt stunning, practiced by the Western method, causes severe pain to the animal. 

The results surprised many. 

Experimental Details: 

1. Several electrodes were surgically implanted at various points of the skull of all animals, touching the surface of thebrain. 

2. The animals were allowed to recover for several weeks. 

3. Some animals were slaughtered by making a swift, deep incision with a sharp knife on the neck cutting the jugular veins and carotid Arteries of both sides; as also the trachea and esophagusHalal Method. 

4. Some animals were stunned using a captive bolt pistol humane slaughter by the western method. 

5. During the experiment, EEG and ECG were recorded on all animals to record the condition of the brain and heart during the course of slaughter and stunning. 

Results and Discussion: 

I - Halal Method 

1. The first three seconds from the time of Islamic slaughter as recorded on the EEG did not show any change from the graph before slaughter, thus indicating that the animal did not feel any pain during or immediately after the incision. 

2. For the following 3 seconds, the EEG recorded a condition of deep sleep - unconsciousness. This is due to a large quantity of blood gushing out from the body. 

3. After the above mentioned 6 seconds, the EEG recorded zero level, showing no feeling of pain at all. 

4. As the brain message (EEG) dropped to zero level, the heart was still pounding and the body convulsing vigorously (a reflex action of the spinal cord) driving maximum blood from the body: resulting in hygienic meat for the consumer. 

II - Western method by C.B.P. Stunning 

1. The animals were apparently unconscious soon after stunning. 

2. EEG showed severe pain immediately after stunning. 

3. The hearts of the animal stunned by C.B.P. stopped beating earlier as compared to those of the animals slaughtered according to the Halal method resulting in the retention of more blood inthe meat. This in turn is unhygienic for the consumer.

Cosmological references in the Noble Qur'ân





An article by : Dr. Zaghloul El-Naggar
Translated by: Hazem Hamdy 

The Noble Qur'ân refers in several âyas (verses) to the universe and to many of its constituents (the heavens and earth, and the various forms of creatures, objects, and cosmological phenomena in each).

Those âyas are introduced in the context of demonstrating the boundlessness of divine powers by which this universe, including everyone and everything in it, was brought into existence. The âyas also prove that the Creator of this universe is also capable of annihilating it and of subsequently reconstructing it anew. Such reasoning is brought forth as part of confuting infidels, polytheists, and agnostics, and proving that Allâh is the only God and that He has no partner, counterpart, or contender. 

The perpetual claim of infidels has been, and will remain until the Day of Judgement, based on attempts to deny the two issues of creation and resurrection after annihilation. Those two issues characteristically fall beyond the immediate perception of scientists, in spite of the tangible evidence that Allâh has maintained in the terrestrial and celestial surfaces to assist sensibly contemplating humans in realizing the reality of creation and the inevitability of annihilation and subsequent resurrection. Understanding the details of such facts in isolation of divine guidance would be more of a wild-goose chase than anything else. In that regard, Allâh ta'ala says in response to wrongful infidel, polytheist, and agnostic humans and jinn: 

"I made them not to witness the creation of the heavens and the earth, nor their own creation; nor choose I misleaders for My helpers" (Al-Kahf: 51) 

On the other hand, Allâh ta'âla encourages humans to ponder and meditate on the creation of the heavens and earth with the following words of His perfect book: 

Lo! In the creation of the heavens and the earth and in the difference of night and day are tokens of His sovereignty for men of understanding. Such as remember Allâh, standing, sitting, and reclining, and consider the creation of the heavens and the earth, and say: Our Lord! Thou createdst not this in vain. Glory be to Thee! Preserve us from the doom of fire. (Al-'imrân: 190-191). 

The revelation of the latter two noble âyas and subsequent âyas in the same sûra had an immense impact on the Messenger of Allâh (may the peace and blessings of Allâh be upon him). He was quoted to have said upon their revelation, "Woe unto those who hear those âyas and onto them do not ponder." The explicit command contained therein indicates that pondering on the creation of the heavens and earth is an Islamic duty that must be carried out by a group of Muslims. Such an undertaking is a most honorable and important act of worshipping Allâh the Creator, in addition to being one of the most important means of realizing the reality of creation, the inevitability of annihilation, and the necessity of resurrection, and of assuring the glory of Allâh ta'âla and that He is the only God and Lord. 

The universe that we inhabit is of vast size, fine construction, and accurate motion. It is orderly in all its aspects and systematic in its entire construct, fine and coarse. Being as such, nobody with the least of reason can imagine that its is a product of sheer coincidence or that it brought itself into existence. Rather, it must have a magnificent originator possessing an extent of absolute power, perfect wisdom, and comprehensive knowledge sufficient for creating this universe, including everyone and everything in it. It is not possible that such a creator have a contender to his dominion or have an associate in his supremacy, because He is the Lord and Sovereign of this universe. None of His creation resembles Him, for He is the Creator of all things, and He is doubtlessly superior to all of His creation. He may not be limited in space or time, simply because He created both of them. Additionally, neither matter nor energy formation may apply to Him, because he is the Innovator of them both. We know nothing about His Supreme Self other than the definition of Himself introduced in His own words: 

The Creator of the heavens and the earth. He hath made for you pairs of yourselves, and of the cattle also pairs, whereby He multiplieth you. Naught is as His likeness; and He is the Hearer, the Seer. (Ash-Shûra: 11). 

We also have His words to the last of His prophets and messengers (may the peace and blessings of Allâh be upon him): 

Say: He is Allâh, the One! Allâh, the eternally Besought of all! He begetteth not nor was begotten. And there is none comparable unto Him. (Al-Ikhlâs: 1-4). 

Accordingly, reflecting on the creation of the heavens and earth is one of the most significant approaches to believing in Allâh, and is thus strongly encouraged in both the Noble Qur'ân and the virtuous Prophetic Sunna. 

Assurance of the Noble Qur'ân that evidence in the heavens and earth proves creation, annihilation, and resurrection 

The Noble Qur'ân emphasizes the evidence found in the heavens and earth expressing the absolute divine power obvious in their creation and origination, as well as the inevitability of their eventual annihilation and subsequent reconstruction in a form other than that currently known to us. This is recurrent in several âyas, among which are the following: 

- He it is Who created the heavens and the earth in truth. (Al-Ana'âm: 73) 

- Allâh created the heavens and the earth with truth. Lo! therein is indeed a portent for believers. (Al-'ankabût: 44) 

- Allâh created not the heavens and the earth, and that which is between them, save with truth and for a destined end. But truly many of mankind are disbelievers in the meeting with their Lord. (Ar-Rûm: 8) 

- And of His signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the difference of your languages and colors. Lo! herein indeed are portents for men of knowledge. (Ar-Rûm: 22) 

- He it is who produceth creation, then reproduceth it and it is easier for Him. His is the Sublime Similitude in the heavens and in the earth. He is the Mighty, the Wise. (Ar-Rûm: 27) 

- He created the heavens and the earth with truth, and He shaped you and made good your shapes, and unto Him is the journeying. (At-Taghâbun: 3) 

- He hath created the heavens and the earth with truth. He maketh night to succeed day, and He maketh day to succeed night, and He constraineth the sun and the moon to give service, each running on for an appointed term. Is not He the Mighty, the Forgiver? (Az-Zumar: 5) 

- Assuredly the creation of the heavens and the earth is greater than the creation of mankind; but most of mankind know not. (Ghâfir: 57) 

- And of His portents is the creation of the heaven and the earth, and of whatever beasts He hath dispersed therein. And He is Able to gather them when He will. (Ash-Shûra: 29) 

- And We created not the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them, in play. We created them not save with truth; but most of them know not. (Ad-Dukhân: 38-39) 

Assurance of the Noble Qur'ân that Allâh ta'âla is the Creator of the heavens, earth, and everything else 

Derivatives of the Arabic root term for creation (Khalq) occur two hundred and sixty one times in the Noble Qur'ân, assuring that the process of creation is exclusively attributed to Allâh ta'âla with absolutely no association nor contention. In reality, no one else is capable of creation unless supported by authority from Allâh ta'âla. On the other hand, the Arabic word corresponding to "heaven" (sky) is mentioned in singular, plural forms in three hundred and ten locations in the Noble Qur'ân. One hundred and twenty of those are in singular (heaven) and one hundred and ninety in plural (heavens) in both definite and indefinite forms. Derivatives of the term for earth are mentioned in four hundred and sixty one locations covering various contexts, all of which affirm that Allâh ta'âla is the Creator of the heavens, earth, and everything else, such as the following: 

- Such is Allâh, your Lord. There is no God save Him, the Creator of all things, so worship Him. And He taketh care of all things. (Al-An'âm: 102) 

- His verily is all creation and commandment Blessed be Allâh, the Lord of the Worlds! (Al-A'râf: 54) 

- Lo! He produceth creation, then reproduceth it (Yûnus: 4) 

- Say: Allâh is the Creator of all things, and He is the One, the Almighty. (Ar-Ra'd: 16) 

- He hath created everything and hath meted out for it a measure. (Al-Furqân: 2) 

- Allâh is Creator of all things, and He is Guardian over all things. (Az-Zumar: 62) 

- Such is Allâh, your Lord, the Creator of all things. There is no God save Him. How then are ye perverted? (Ghâfir: 62) 

- Lo! We have created every thing by measure. (Al-Qamar: 49) 

- He is Allâh, the Creator, the Shaper out of naught, the Fashioner. (Al-Hashr: 24) 

The Noble Qur'ân extensively and conclusively handles the issues of creation and resurrection by ascribing them exclusively to Allâh ta'âla. This is because they were two of the most challenging issues that have been historically used as arguments by atheists and agnostics lacking knowledge and guidance. Until today, they still use such repudiation and denial in contesting the belief in Allâh ta'âla as the Creator. The Noble Qur'ân refutes their claims as follows: 

- Is He then Who createth as him who createth not? Will ye not then remember? (An-Nahl: 17) 

- Those unto whom they cry beside Allâh created naught, but are themselves created. (An-Nahl: 20) 

- Yet they choose beside Him other gods who create naught but are themselves created. (Al-Furqân: 3) 

- Or were they created out of naught? Or are they the creators? Or did they create the heavens and the earth? Nay, but they are sure of nothing! (At-Tûr: 35-36) 

- Say: Is there of your partners ( whom ye ascribe unto Allâh ) one that produceth Creation and then reproduceth it? Say: Allâh produceth creation, then reproduceth it. How then, are ye misled! (Yûnus: 34) 

- See they not how Allâh produceth creation, then reproduceth it? Lo! for Allâh that is easy. Say ( O Muhammad ): Travel in the land and see how He originated creation, then Allâh bringeth forth the later growth. Lo! Allâh is Able to do all things. (Al-'ankabût: 19-20) 

Stance of the Islamic civilization on the issue of creation


Upon completion of the mission of the Prophet (may the peace and blessings of Allâh be upon him), Muslims set out to establish the greatest civilization history ever knew. Their endeavor was based on undisputed belief in the fact of creation and the inevitability of resurrection. The aim was achieved because theirs was the only civilization that successfully combined this world with the afterlife in a single formula that lasted for more than ten whole centuries. Such civilization called for worshipping of Allâh as He commanded (on basis of pure monotheism and full denial of any counterpart, associate, or contender to His names and attributes). It concurrently calls for adequate fulfillment of the constructive duties assigned to humans on earth and the realization of justice as set forth by Allâh thereon, based on the laws revealed by Allâh through his final messenger. It is that revelation that Allâh vowed to preserve in the same language as it was revealed; word for word and letter for letter. Truly, it has been preserved so that no human may ever have an excuse after that conclusive revelation was brought forth and preserved under the vow of Allâh from any loss or distortion. 

Applying such a balanced combination of divine revelation with endeavors to acquire beneficial knowledge, the Islamic civilization enlightened all religious and civil aspects of life, while establishing a solid foundation for religious, scientific, and technological matters. This was based on belief in the natural coherence of knowledge, and that believers enjoy ultimate entitlement to wisdom, simply because they are constantly pursuing it. As such, the Islamic civilization compiled knowledge from all sources, no matter how distant or how disparate the initiating civilization and the beliefs of its members were. However, such knowledge was never taken for granted. Rather, all available human heritage would always be screened using Islamic criteria that are based on pure belief in the unity of Allâh, in order to purify that heritage from all the blemishes of polytheism, atheism, and repudiation towards Allâh ta'âla. Additionally, the Islamic civilization made substantial inherent contributions to all aspects of human heritage, which subsequently served as a springboard for the modern scientific and technological renaissance. This is a fact that many a contemporary scientist admits all over the world. 

Believing in the unseen never impeded scientific and technological progress of the Islamic civilization. In fact, the Islamic civilization strongly encouraged pursuing such progress, considering it one of the patterns of worshipping Allâh ta'âla. It also encouraged contemplation of the creation and methodological means of induction based on the laws set by Allâh in the universe with the ultimate goal of utilizing them to the constructive benefit of this world in fulfillment of one of the duties assigned to humans on earth. Such efforts thus represent the other side of worshipping Allâh; the first side being acts of worship based on obeying His commands and following the course of the last of prophets and messengers (may the peace and blessings of Allâh be upon him). 

Stance of the current materialistic civilization on the issue of creation


The current materialistic civilization was originally formed in the Islamic civilization crucible and rose therefrom. However, contrary to the Islamic civilization, the western civilization was built on a purely materialistic foundation. It repudiated religion and assumed a denying position with regards to believing in Allâh, His angels, books, and messengers, and the Day of Judgement. It also rejected anything that is unseen in an explicitly hostile and scornful manner. It thus deviated off-track and went astray, in spite of its tremendous amount of scientific discoveries and amazing technological achievements. In fact, such discoveries and achievements are potential factors of the eventual destruction of that very civilization in the absence of any religious, spiritual, or ethical commitment. How truly has this been expressed in the Noble Qur'ân more than fourteen hundred years ago, in the revealed words of Allâh ta'âla: Then, when they forgot that whereof they had been reminded, We opened unto them the gates of all things till , even as they were rejoicing in that which they were given , We seized them unawares , and lo! they were dumbfounded. So of the people who did wrong the last remnant was cut off. Praise be to Allâh, Lord of the Worlds! 

By rejecting belief in Allâh, western societies have descended to an extremely inferior standard of depravity, social deterioration, and defiance of the nature with which Allâh created every being. This coincided with their enjoyment of material superiority that supported their hegemony, subjugation of others, and spreading of injustice; as they lack fear of a Lord and of judgement, all of which pose a combined threat to the very existence of humanity! 

Human knowledge as a whole, and science in particular, are still being composed on purely materialistic grounds that only take tangibles into consideration and neglect everything beyond. Human societies drifted with such directions into an endless labyrinth, thus going astray and misleading others, in spite of the enormous amount of information contained therein and the amazing technological progress that has been achieved. 

Misguidance of modern materialistic civilization reaches its peak when it deals with issues that simply cannot be subjected to direct human perception, such as those related to creation, annihilation, and resurrection (creation of the universe, of life, of humans, and subsequent annihilation and resurrection thereof anew). Those are some of the issues that imply the need for divine guidance. Otherwise, profound misguidance is certain. Allâh ta'âla most truthfully confutes those claims made by wrongful infidel, polytheist, and agnostic humans and jinn as follows: 

I made them not to witness the creation of the heavens and the earth, nor their own creation; nor choose I misleaders for (My) helpers. (Al-Kahf: 51) 

The Noble Qur'ân assures that none of humans or jinn witnessed the creation of the heavens and earth, nor even of his own self, for that matter. However, it concurrently affirms the necessity of pondering on the creation of heavens, earth, and life as the most significant indicators of the boundless power of Allâh and the perfect craft of divine production. They equally indicate the inevitability of afterlife and the necessity of resurrection, judgement, paradise, and hell. This is due to the fact that the Creator (highly exalted and glorified) left clues in the terrestrial rocks and in the celestial plane to help humans understand the issues of creation and resurrection, in spite of their limited mental and perceptive abilities vis-à-vis the vastness of the universe, the enormity of its dimensions, and the complexity of its structure, in addition to the structural complexity of the human body and its cells. Such a combination produces a marvelous form of placing the entire universe at the service and benefit of man, and of rendering it within his conception and perception.

Geology & The Origin of the Earth





  Professor Alfred Kroner, who is one of the world’s most famous geologists. He is a Professor of Geology and the Chairman of the Department of Geology at the Institute of Geosciences, Johannes Gutenburg University, Mainz, Germany studied and commented on several Qur'aanic verses and Ahadeeth of the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him. 

Professor Kroner said: "Thinking about many of these questions and thinking where Muhammad came from, he was after all a bedouin. I think it is almost impossible that he could have known about things like the common origin of the universe, because scientists have only found out within the last few years with very complicated and advanced technological methods that this is the case."

Professor Kroner chose an example from the Qur'aan which proved to him why the Qur'aan could not have come from Muhammad (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) himself. The example which Professor Kroner chose is a description in the Qur'aan of the fact that this universe had its beginnings in one single entity. Allah, may He be Exalted and Glorified said: {Do not the unbelievers see that the heavens and the earth were joined together [ratqan], before we clove them asunder? We made from water every living thing… } [Qur'aan 21:30]

The meaning of [ratqan] in this verse, is that the heavens and the earth were stuck together or blended together, and that they were later separated from each other. Professor Kroner used this as an example to prove that no human being during the time of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), could have known this.
 
Professor Kroner: "Somebody who did not know something about nuclear physics 1400 years ago could not, I think, be in a position to find out from his own mind for instance that the earth and the heavens had the same origin, or many others of the questions that we have discussed here."
 
Professor Kroner, so it seemed to us, has a special talent of being evasive. For example, we asked him to describe the geological conditions of Arabia. ‘Was Arabia full of orchards and rivers?’ He said: "During the Snow Age." And it is further known that the North Polar icebergs are slowly moving southwards. When those polar icebergs become relatively close to the Arabian Peninsula, the weather will change and Arabia will become one of the greenest and wettest parts of the world. We asked him: ‘Will Arabia become the land of orchards and rivers?’ He said: "Yes, it is a scientific fact." 
 
This astonished us, and we wondered how he could state this as a scientific fact while it was related to the future and we asked: ‘Why?’ He said: "Because the new Snow Age has actually started. And we can see the snow crawling once again from the North Pole southwards. In fact, the polar snow is now on the way to get closer to the Arabian Peninsula. We can see the signs of this in the snow blizzards striking the northern parts of Europe and America every winter. Scientists have other signs and information proving the actual beginning of another Snow Age. It is a scientific fact."
 
So we said to him: ‘What you have just mentioned has only been known to scientists after a long series of discoveries and with the help of specialized instruments. But we have already found this mentioned by the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) 1400 years ago. He said in a hadith transmitted in Saheeh Muslim: "The Last Hour will not come upon us until the lands of the Arabs are once again pasture lands and filled with rivers."
 
At this point we asked Professor Kroner: ‘Who told the Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam), that the lands of the Arabs were once filled with orchards and rivers?’ He immediately replied: "The Romans." This reminded me of Professor Kroner’s evasive ability. We asked him another question, we said to him: ‘But who informed the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon hi), that the lands of the Arabs would once again become pasturelands and be filled with rivers?’. Professor Kroner becomes evasive if embarrassed. But whenever he was faced with the truth, he is courageous enough to state his opinion frankly and thus he replied: "This could have been known to him only through revelation from above." 
 
Finally, after our discussions with him, he made the following comments: "If you combine all these and you combine all those statements that are being made in the Quran in terms that relate to the earth and the formation of the earth and science in general, you can basically say that statements made there in many ways are true. They can now be confirmed by scientific methods, and in a way you can say that the Quran is a simple science text book for the simple man, and that many of the statements made in there at that time could not be proven but that modern scientific methods are now in a position to prove what Muhammad said 1400 years ago."
 
Allah confirms in His Book that:
{This is no less than reminder to (all), the worlds. And you shall certainly know the truth of it all after a while} (Qur'aan 38:87-88)
 
Written by : Sh. AbdulMajid Az-Zindany, ( To read the whole book : http://www.it-is-truth.org )

Scientific Accuracy of Qur'an Amazes U of T Professor





  This message is based on an article titled “Highlights of Human embryology in the Qur’an and Haidth” by Dr.Keith Moore, Professor of Anatomy and Chairman of the Department, Faculty of Medicine, at the University of Toronto, 1982.

Dr. Moore points out that the study of how the human embryo develops in the mother’s womb could not progress significantly without the use of microscopes. Microscopes were not invented until the 17th century C.E., and were not used in this field of study until the 18th century. Therefore, when Dr. Moore studied certain statements in the Qur’an on this subject, he remarked, “ I was amazed at the scientific accuracy of these statements which were made in the 7th century C.E.,”

The Qur’an in 39:6 states that God made us in the wombs of our mothers in stages. Dr. Moore comments: “The realization that the embryo develops in stages in the uterus was not proposed until the1940’s, and the stages used nowadays were not adopted worldwide until the 19th century C.E.”

Furthermore, he says: “The idea that development results from a genetic plan contained in the chromosomes, of the zygote was not discovered until the end of the 19th century C.E. The verse from the Qur’an [80:18] clearly implies that the nutfa (i.e.
the initial drop of fluid) contains the plan or blueprint for the future characteristics and features of the developing human being.”

The Qur’an 23: 12-16 indicates that there is a lag or a gap between two of the early stages of growth. How does that compare with modern scientific knowledge? Remarkably! Says Dr. Moore: “It is well established that there is a lag or a delay in the development of
the embryo during the implantation… The agreement between the lag or gap in development mentioned in the Qur’an and the slow rate of change occurring during the second or third weeks is amazing. These details of human development were not described until about 40 years ago.”

Finally, Dr. Moore concludes by saying that the agreement he has found in the Qur’anic statements ‘may help to close the gap between science and religion which has existed for so many years.”

The above evidence shows that the Qur’an must be from God as it claims. The Qur’an says that you and every human being should consider this book with care: {Had it been from anyone other than God, you would have found much discrepancy in it} [Qur’an 4:82]

The Relationship between Quran & Science. Is the earth flat?





An interesting and important discussion of the relationship between Quran and Science and how this relates to the question of is the earth flat and do Muslims believe so?


Answer:

Bismillahi-Rahmani-Rahim Wa bihi nasta'een 

In the name of God, Most Merciful, Most Beneficient; and from Him we seek help 

All Praise is for the One and only God Who created all that we see around us so perfectly, with immense knowledge, deep insight and unparalleled mastery. The more one discovers these the more he appreciates. Likewise, all Praise is for the One and Only God who sent Messengers and Books of Guidance to His Creation from time to time. He sent the Quran, the last of them, and perfected it with guidance based on His immense knowledge, deep insight and unparalleled wisdom in its guidance and eloquence. The more we increase in wisdom the more we appreciate it. 

What is the relationship of Quran to Science and Technology? Did Muslim scholars of Quran and Islam believe the earth was flat? 

The answer unashamedly is, 'Yes, they did'. The Quran merely described the earth as a vast expanse stretched out for all to live stably and comfortably on it. Some scholars extrapolated from it that the earth was a flat sheet (as opposed to a sphere). But herein lays a further proof that the Quran is the word of God and not of any man, as we will see shortly inshaAllah. 

First we will examine the relationship of Quran to Science and Technology. From this the place of the abovementioned saying of some Muslim scholars will become clear. 

Allah refers to the Quran as containing arguments that serve as eye openers to the reality of this life, the knowledge of its Creator, His Messenger and purpose of life. He says therein, (the translation of it means) "This (contains) Basaa'ir (deep insights, arguments and eye openers) for mankind." [Sura Jaathiya45: 20] He also says, "O people, there has indeed come to you an admonition from your Lord, a healing for what is in the chests; and a guidance and mercy for the Believers." [Sura Yunus10: 57] So the Quran serves as an admonition persuading the people and appealing to their better judgment to cure and heal the unhealthy thoughts, feelings and beliefs that they may harbour in their chests about life, toward their Creator and fellow human beings. Moreover, it provides guidance in every walk of life to lift their character and reap the benefits as a mercy for those who believe in it and follow its guidance. 

So the Quran is a book of guidance to open people's eyes to the reality of this life, its Creator and to live in harmony with His creation. In other words the Quran and the Messenger of God, who conveyed the Book to us from our Creator, said about the whole purpose behind his being sent as a Messenger with the Quran, "Verily, I have merely been sent to complete the noble characteristics." (Innama bu'ithtu li utammima makaarimal-aklaaq). As the Scholars have pointed out, the aklaaq or character in Arabic, 'is the internal make-up of a person that brings forth actions naturally and without any difficulty.' Thus the Quran and the Messenger have been sent to complete and perfect our character; firstly in our relationship with our Creator and then in our dealings with our fellow human beings as well as animals and the inanimate objects created by God. 

This, the Quran sets out to do as did the Messenger of our Creator, Muhammad (s.a.w), in his life time and for after his death left behind for us his Hadith (a record of his sayings and actions); and they both fulfilled their task in an impeccable manner. With this, it starts to become clearer that the Quran is not and was not meant to be a textbook on science and technology. Nowhere in it does it claim this, nor did the Messenger of God, Muhammad. It did not even set out to make one scientific theory or serve as a manual for a technological breakthrough. Science and technology are merely a means to the end that the Quran came to guide us to. The knowledge of science and technology are a common human heritage and aspects of them are constantly revised, discarded or developed. Something we believe to be true today may be disproved a few years later. An example of that is the age of the earth. The Medieval Christians (during their 'Dark Ages' specified it within a certain range. Scientists at the onset of Christian European Renaissance revised that figure using thermal means to determine its age and increased the number by more than ten times. Then the scientists with the advancement of technology used means of radioactive detection and determined its age to be far higher in the order of millions of years. They realized that the earlier thermal means were in fact incorrect due to climatic influences on the thermal mode of assessment! This is an example of what was once believed to be scientific facts being proven wrong and revised with more technological advancement. 

Our knowledge of science is based on experimental method and extrapolating a theory of the 'reality' and this is coloured by the philosophical beliefs of the scientists who are postulating that theory. A lot of what many call science is facts explained by the scientist's beliefs and philosophy. 

However, since technology is concerned with the means and not the end, the Quran -which is the exact word of God - makes no direct attempt at raising the level of man in it and that is a steady ongoing process. It merely encourages them to use it for good. 

But, as for the Prophet Muhammad whose words (recorded in Hadith collection) were human and not divine, he never even attempted to postulate a scientific theory as that was not his mission. The most he ever referred to scientific concepts was no more than as passing references while making another religious point in the broad sense. His knowledge of technology and science (as with his companions who were all humans and not divine, it) was to a large extent a reflection of the scientific awareness of the people of that time -but without the superstitious beliefs which Islam purified them from. As for the knowledge of religious guidance that the Prophet was sent with, it was of divine accuracy since it was revealed to him from God. As Muslim scholars pointed out, if ever the Prophet exercised his judgment (ijtihad) in verdicts to do with matters of religious guidance (be it in economics, politics or social life), then Allah ensured that his judgment was never left unchecked if he ever erred as a human (as pointed out in books of Usool-ul-Fiqh and Tafseer). 

We see a clear example of the nature of the knowledge of the Prophet in the two fields from the following incident and he himself makes the point very clearly. 

The Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be on him) along with some of his companions migrated from Mecca to Medina. The Meccans were merchants and traders while the Medinians were people of agriculture. One day, in Medina, the Prophet was passing by a few Medinan farmers who were climbing high up on date palms to enhance pollination of seeds. They would manually put male with the female instead of leaving it to the wind to do it. The Prophet, who was not a farmer without realizing the importance of this manual process said to them, "Perhaps it may be better for you not to do this." The Medinians, hearing this from the Messenger of God left what they were doing. The produce came out scarcely as it was merely by the wind. The Prophet clarified his role and nature as a Messenger of God to the people in very clear terms, "If I order you to do something that is to do with your religion then take it (and do it) but if I order you to do something from my own opinion then verily I am merely a human being;" and he added, "You are more knowledgeable of the matters of your world." This is an authentic hadith, collected in Sahih Muslim. 

Thus we see in the hadith literature when the Prophet and the companions happened to mention anything of scientific nature, as the Prophet pointed out earlier, it reflects their contemporary human level of knowledge in those matters of technology. Yet when we see in the Quran any passing references made to a matter of science, it is of timeless accuracy - some of those facts that have only been discovered thirteen hundred years later with modern advanced scientific equipment. An example of this is references to embryological stages of development discovered recently by microscopes. 

Doesn't this clearly show that the author of the Quran was not a contemporary to the time of its Revelation - not the Prophet nor any human being - rather the author was someone with knowledge of timeless accuracy? 

I mentioned that the Quran makes no more than 'passing references' to matters of science as the Quran was not meant to be a text book teaching science nor did it concern itself with that. The role of these passing references whenever made in a moral lesson can be understood by the following example. 

Imagine when you see a person being extremely haughty and arrogant, you rebuke him saying, "Why are you behaving so arrogantly while you were made from just two tiny cells, the sperm and the ovum in a tiny droplet of liquid that no one even likes to touch!" You are imparting a moral lesson and making passing references only to scientific facts to make the moral point and no more. In fact had Allah used scientific concepts that could not have been understood at all at that point in time or thereafter, then the point would not have been understood and the people would have been left confused. That is why the only references are of a nature such that the moral lesson can still be made. It is these that even leading non-Muslim scientists have discovered in the Quran. 

Keith Moore is a leading Canadian Embryologist and two of his books have been used as Embryology text books in Medical faculties at universities around the world. He is an example of one who researched into these scientific references in the Quran and realized that the author of the Quran is One Whose knowledge is of timeless accuracy and not a human being. He accepted Islam and became a Muslim. He even published the third addition of one of these text books with correlations between Quran and embryological facts. However, the publishers soon brought out a fourth edition and left only a paragraph of that in the section on history! Just as the leading magicians in the Court of Pharaoh realized that the staff of Moses was no magic but from a non human, super natural source, God; likewise these scientists who were humble, open-minded and without any vested interests, they realized that the scientific facts made references to in the Quran are not from a human from the time of revelation but rather from God Whose knowledge is eternal and complete. 

Sheikh Muhammad ibn Salih al-Utheimeen, a leading scholar of Islam who died only a few years ago, made a very interesting point that shows the difference between Islam, and other religions. He said, (from what I relate from memory) "From the apparent (Dh-aahir) understanding of the verses of the Quran I understand that the sun goes around the earth - at least from our reference point here on earth. If knowledge comes to us with certainty that it in fact is the opposite, then I would realise that these verses were merely pointing out the movement of the sun as seen by an onlooker on earth (as the moral lesson is being made about them sitting in the cave on earth with the sun above them as in Sura Kahf). Both concepts can be understood from those verses in isolation." In fact those expressions are along the lines of what we still say today in our expressions and fully understand what we mean when we say 'Sunrise, sun has risen or the sun has set!' The Sheikh did not concern himself with these matters. As for the moral and spiritual development (in all walks of life including economics, political, social interactions etc), this sheikh like others, learnt it from the Quran which is what the Quran was sent for, and his knowledge and excellence in these aspects was proverbial. 

Had the Quran been sent by God for teaching science instead of moral development it would have done it with the same class and expertise. 

Yet, as the Quran points out, many among mankind do not accept and submit to God's guidance. At times it is because of racial pride and arrogance while with others it is simply indulgence in the temporal pleasures of this life to an extent where they do not contemplate enough and are not willing to give up these immediate pleasures for the eternal ones that they cannot see even if they knew and realised. 

Moreover, had the Quran been from a human or any other than God there would have been internal inconsistencies and discrepancies - as is characteristic of a mortal in his authorship - but the Quran is amazingly coherent and there is not even a single contradiction neither within itself nor with proven facts outside it. Allah said in the Quran, (the translation reads) "Do they not then reflect on the Quran, had it been from any other than God, they would have found therein many discrepancies" [Sura Nisa 4:82] 

It is the people's shortcoming for not accepting the Quran despite its truth being so manifest. It even challenged them to produce a short chapter like it in its eloquence, lofty guidance with penetrating insight and wisdom. This challenge is very appropriate as we can match a human effort or even surpass it but not one that is from God. A false claimant to Prophet hood at the time of Prophet Muhammad came up with a short sura trying to match sura al-Qari’ah. Amr ibn al-Aas, who was then one of the leaders of Quraish in Mecca, despite his strong opposition to Islam, dismissed his flimsy attempts at trying to match the Quran! That attempt is now forgotten in the books of history. Amr ibn al-Aas later went on to accept the Quran as being from none other than God. He accepted Islam and become a pious Muslim. 

Our Creator, says in Quran, His Book of Guidance sent for us, He says about this book itself, "Alif, Lam, Mim, That is the Book there is no doubt in it is a guidance for the God-concious." [Sura Baqarah 2:1-2]

Quran on Human Embryonic Develpment

In the Holy Quran, God speaks about the stages of man's embryonic development, 1,400 years before modern day scientists 'discovered' important information on creation of man and his development:
{We created man from an extract of clay. Then We made him as a drop in a place of settlement, firmly fixed. Then We made the drop into an alaqah (leech, suspended thing, and blood clot), then We made the alaqah into a mudghah (chewed-like substance)...} [Holy Quran 23:12-14]

Literally the Arabic word alaqah has 3 meanings:
leech
suspended thing
blood clot

1. "In comparing a leech to the embryo at the alaqah stage, we find similarity between the two." [The Developing Human p.8].
"Also, the embryo as this stage obtains nourishment from the blood of the mother, similar to the leech which feeds on the blood of others." [Human Development as Described in Quran and Sunnah p.36].

2. The second meaning of the word alaqah is 'suspended thing'. The suspension of the embryo, during the alaqah stage, in the womb of the mother very appropriately fits this description.

3. The third meaning of the word alaqah is 'blood clot'. We find that the external appearance of the embryo and its sacs during the alaqah stage is similar to that of a blood clot. This is due to the presence of relatively large amounts of blood present in the embryo during this stage. Also during this stage the blood in the embryo does not circulate until the end of the third week. So the embryo at this stage is like a clot of blood.

By examining a diagram of the primitive cardiovascular system in an embryo during the alaqah stage we would notice the external appearance of the embryo and its sacs is similar to that of a blood clot due to the presence of relatively large amounts of blood present in the embryo [The Developing Human, p. 65].

So the three meanings of the word alaqah correspond accurately to the descriptions of the embryo at the alaqah stage.

The next stage mentioned in the verse is the mudghah stage. The Arabic word mudghah means "chewed-like substance." If one were to take a piece of gum and chew it in his mouth, and then compare it with the embryo at the mudghah stage, we would conclude that they would be almost identical because of the somites at the back of the embryo that 'somewhat resemble teeth marks in a chewed substance.'

How could Muhammad, peace be upon him, have possibly known all this 1,400 years ago when scientists have only recently discovered this using advanced equipment and powerful microscopes which did not exist at that time?, Hamm and Leeuwenhoek were the first scientists to observe human sperm cells using an improved microscope in 1677 A.D. (more than 1,000 years after Muhammad, peace be upon him]. They mistakenly thought that the sperm cell contained a miniature preformed human being that grew when it was deposited in the female genital tract [The Developing Human, p.9].

Professor Keith Moore is one of the world's prominent scientists in the fields of anatomy and embryology and is the author of the book entitled the "Developing Human", which has been translated into eight languages. This book is considered a scientific reference work and was chosen by a special committee in the United States as the best book authored by on person. Dr. Keith Moore is a Professor of Anatomy and Cell Biology at the University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. In 1984, he received the most distinguished award presented in the field of anatomy in Canada, the J.C.B. Grant Award from the Canadian Association of Anatomists. He has directed many international associations, such as the Canadian and American Association of Anatomists and the Council of the Union of Biological Sciences.

In 1981, during the Seventh Medical Conference in Dammam, Saudi Arabia, Professor Moore said: "It has been a great pleasure for me to help clarify statements in the Quran about human development. It is clear to me that these statements must have come to Muhammad from God, or Allah, because almost all of this knowledge was not discovered until many centuries later. This proves to me that Muhammad must have been the messenger of God, or Allah" [The reference for this statement is on 'This is the Truth' (video tape). For a copy of this video tape please contact us].

Consequently, Professor Moore was asked the following question: "Does this mean that you believe that the Quran is the Word of God?" He replied; "I find no difficulty in accepting this."

During one conference, Professor Moore stated: "... because the stagein of human embryos is complex, owing to the continuous process of change during development, it is proposed that a new system of classification could be developed using the terms mentioned in the Quran and the Sunnah (sayings of Muhammad, peace be upon him). The proposed system is simple, comprehensive, and conforms with present embryological knowledge. The intensive studies of the Quran and Hadeeth (reliably transmitted sayings and reports of Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him) in the last four years have revealed a system of classifying human embryos that is amazing since it was recorded in the 7th century A.D. Although Eric Statle, the founder of the science of embryology, realized that chick embryos developed in stages from his studies of hen's eggs in the fourth century B.C., he did not give any details about these stages. As far as it is known from the history of embryology, little was known about the stagein and classification of human embryos until the twentieth century. For this reason, the descriptions of the human embryo in the Quran cannot be based on scientific knowledge in the 7th century A.D. The only reasonable conclusion is that these descriptions were revealed to Muhammad from God. He could not have known such details because he was an illiterate man with absolutely no scientific training" [This is the Truth -video tape].

Think about the humans. How did we all get here? What is the nature of mankind? What causes us to act as we do?, Are we ungrateful to the One who created us and sustains us?, What is this clue?, Think about yourself. Did you create yourself?